Muntra, country’s first unmanned tank, rolls out from the Chennai lab

In News 

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an unmanned, remotely operated tank which has three variants surveillance, mine detection and reconnaissance in areas with nuclear and bio threats named as Muntra.

About the vehicle

  • Muntra-S is the country’s first tracked unmanned ground vehicle developed for unmanned surveillance missions while Muntra-M is for detecting mines and Muntra-N is for operation in areas where there is a nuclear radiation or bio weapon risk.
  • The vehicle has been tested and validated at Mahajan field firing range in Rajasthan under dusty desert conditions where temperatures touched 52 C. Army comfortably tele-operated the vehicle.
  • It has surveillance radar, an integrated camera along with laser range finder which can be used to spy on ground target 15km away – may be a crawling men or heavy vehicles.

Source : Economic Times

GS III : Internal Security


Cabinet apprised of MoU between India and Bangladesh for cyber security cooperation


CERT-In is a national nodal agency under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, with the objective of securing Indian cyber space. CERT-In is collaborating with overseas Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) for incident response and resolution.

Need for Security agreement

  • The agreement comes in the backdrop of Governments, business and consumers are increasingly faced with a variety of cyber threats.
  • In order to further improve cyber security readiness and raise awareness around the importance of keeping systems secure and security practices and procedures current and recognizing the importance of cooperation by the two organizations in the area of cyber security.

MoU between India and Bangladesh

The MoU intends to promote cooperation between CERT-In and BGD e-Gov CIRT and includes

  1. Exchange of information on Cyber attacks and cyber security incidents.
  2. Cyber security technology cooperation.
  3. Exchange cyber security policies and best practices and Human Resource Development in this field in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of each country and on the basis of equality.
  4. Reciprocity and mutual benefits.

The MoU between CERT-In and BGD e-Gov CIRT would be implemented through a duly set up Joint Committee on Cyber Security.

Source : Pib

GS III : Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security.

India ranks 23rd in second Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 2017

In News

The second Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) has placed India at a high 23rd position out of 165 nations.

About the Index

The Index measures the commitment of nations across the world to cyber security. The GCI was released by the UN telecommunications agency International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Features of the report

  • Around 38 per cent of countries have a published cyber security strategy and an additional 12 per cent of governments are in the process of developing one.
  • More effort is needed in this critical area, particularly since it conveys that governments consider digital risks high priority.
  • Cybersecurity is an ecosystem where laws, organisations, skills, cooperation and technical implementation need to be in harmony to be most effective.
  • India is ranked 23rd on the index with a score of 0.683 and has been listed in the maturing category.
  • Maturing Category refers to 77 countries that have developed complex commitments to cyber security and engage in cyber security programmes and initiatives.
  • Singapore has topped the index with a 0.925 score.

International Telecommunication Union

An agency of the United Nations (UN) whose purpose is to coordinate telecommunication operations and services throughout the world. Originally founded in 1865, as the International Telegraph Union, the ITU is the oldest existing international organization. ITU headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. The ITU sets and publishes regulations and standards relevant to electronic communication and broadcasting technologies of all kinds including radio, television, satellite , telephone and the Internet .

Source : Economic Times

GS III : Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security

NSG organises first International Aviation Security seminar

In News

Minister of State for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (I/C)  attended  the first International Aviation Security Seminar in Manesar.

Objective of the seminar

National Security Guard (NSG) has organised the seminar, with the aim of bringing all major stakeholders under one roof and facilitate them sharing views/opinion, discussions, brain storming with the matters concerning Aviation Security.

Weapons and equipment were also displayed showcasing the current weapons and systems used by the forces and cutting edge systems considered for future planning.

National Security Guard

  • National Security Guard (NSG) is an Indian special forces unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), are often referred to in the media as Black Cats.
  • It composed of personnel on deputation from other Central Armed Police Forces and State Police Forces.NSG_Commandos_Republic_day_2015.
  • It was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of former PM Indira Gandhi, for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect states against internal disturbances.
  • NSG is trained to conduct counter terrorist task to including counter hijacking tasks on land, sea, and air; Bomb disposal, Post Blast Investigation and Hostage Rescue missions.
  • Head of NSG, designated as Director General (DG), is selected by the MHA-Home Minister officer from Indian Police Service (IPS).

Source : Pib

GS III : Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

Centre plans partial removal of AFSPA in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh

In News

The Centre is considering partial removal of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.

AFSPA and Effect

AFSPA gives powers to the Army and central forces deployed in disturbed areas to kill anyone acting in contravention of law, arrest and search any premises without a warrant and provide cover to forces from prosecution and legal suits without the Centre’s sanction.

  • It is effective in the whole of Nagaland, Assam, Manipur (excluding seven Assembly constituencies of Imphal).
  • In Arunachal Pradesh it is in force in 16 police stations and in Tirap, Longding and Changlang districts bordering Assam.
  • Tripura withdrew AFSPA in 2015. It is not in force in Meghalaya (except a 20-kilometre area along the Assam border) and Mizoram.
  • Also it is effective in the whole of Jammu and Kashmir

Withdrawal of AFSPA

  • The State governments’ comments and will take the final decision once they reply.
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, looking at complete withdrawal, except two districts in the east bordering Myanmar and Nagaland.
  • Three border districts of Arunachal Pradesh were being used by militants of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) to escape to Myanmar and 25 incidents of violence were reported from September 2016-February 2017.

Source : The Hindu

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Gurkha Land Issue

In News

Gorkha Janmukti Morcha is a political party which campaigns for the creation of a separate state Gorkhaland within India, out of districts in the north of West Bengal started their agitation. Supporters stepped up its protests in Darjeeling, against Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) agreement which was set up in 2011 after an agitation.

What is Gorkhaland ?

  • Gorkhaland is a proposed state in India demanded by the people of the Darjeeling Hills and the people of Nepali-Indian Gorkhas ethnic origin on the Northern part of West Bengal.
  • Their Demand based on linguistic and cultural difference with regard to Bengali culture.

    Gorkha land

    Source : Wikipedia

  • Darjeeling movement for Gorkhaland has gained momentum in the line of an ethno-linguistic-cultural sentiment of the Nepali language speaking Indian people who desire to identify themselves as Indian Gorkhas.
  • Two mass movements for Gorkhaland have taken place under the Gorkha National Liberation Front (1986–1988) and Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) (2007–present).
  • Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) agreement, entered into between the Centre, West Bengal government and the GJM in 2011.

Gorkhaland Territorial Administration and issues

  • A semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling hills, was signed on 18 July 2011.
  • A bill for the creation of GTA was passed in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly on 2 September 2011.
  • The West Bengal government issued a gazette notification for the GTA Act on 14 March 2012, signalling preparations for elections for the GTA.
  • In the elections of the GTA held on 29 July 2012, GJM candidates won from 17 constituencies and the rest 28 seats unopposed.
  • Later in 2013, Gurung, leader of Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, resigned from the GTA citing both interference from the West Bengal government and the renewed agitation for Gorkhaland.

Current issue

  • The agitation started as a protest against perceived imposition of Bengali language in the hills of West Bengal where Nepali is the official language.
  • GJM leadership marked the end of the regional developmental board in the hills in the GTA agreement.
  • They started demanding Gorkhaland.

Source : The Hindu, Wikipedia

GS III : Internal Security

11,000 cr. to be spent on roads in Naxal-hit areas

Why in News ?

In Chhattisgarh, where 25 personnel of the Central Reserve Police Force were killed by Naxals last month. Centre will begin work on a ₹11,000-crore project to provide road connectivity to 44 Naxal-affected districts, including Sukma in Chhattisgarh, which had recently witnessed one of the deadliest Maoist attacks.

Details of the aid

  • 11,000-crore project to 44 Naxal-affected districts.
  • To improve rural road connectivity in the Left Wing Extremism affected districts, under the centrally-sponsored “Road Connectivity Project for LWE Affected Areas” scheme.
  • Five per cent of the total project cost i.e. ₹550 crore will be kept aside for administrative expenses including for deployment of security forces at strategic locations.
  • The project will be implemented under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana in the districts that are critical from a security and communication point of view.
  • There will be construction or upgradation of 5,411 km of roads and 126 bridges.
  • Out of these 44 districts, the maximum are in Chhattisgarh
  • Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra are the other States that will be covered under the scheme.

Source : The Hindu

GS III : Linkages between development and spread of extremism

Govt issues critical alert over ransomware


Hospitals, major companies and government offices have been hit by a massive wave of cyberattacks across the globe that seize control of computers until the victims pay a ransom.

About the attack

  • More than 75,000 ransomware attacks in 99 countries, making it one of the broadest and most damaging cyberattacks in history.
  • The ransomware called WannaCry locks down all the files on an infected computer and asks the computer’s administrator to pay in order to regain control of them.
  • Ransomware worm that stopped car factories, hospitals, shops and schools in more than 100 countries.
  • The country most affected by WannaCry is UK, where 48 of the 248 National Health Service trusts were impacted, causing widespread disruption to health services in the country.

ransome virus

Alert from GOI

The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), the central agency coordinating efforts on cyber security issues, has issued a critical alert and has advised the installation of relevant patches to protect against any data breaches. WannaCry malware, according to CERT-In, spreads by using a vulnerability in implementations of Server Message Block in systems running Microsoft’s Windows operating system.

Source : HT

GS III : Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security.

Money laundering : Proposal for making a criminal offence

Union government is considering a proposal to make money laundering a separate criminal offence. It will be investigated by the Enforcement Directorate, irrespective of a probe by other agencies.

How it help ?

  • This will facilitate quick action against those indulging in money laundering.
  • Special Investigation Team (SIT) on black money has also been of the view that money laundering investigations by the Enforcement Directorate should be allowed without any dependence on registration of cases by other police agencies.

Current Practice

  • Money laundering cases depends on that of the probe and prosecutions in predicate offences pursued by primary agencies.
  • Registration of cases by other police agencies under the legal provisions listed in the schedule of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) is needed.

Investigation in other countries

  • Money laundering in itself has been defined as a criminal offence in several countries.
  • There are separate legislation for dealing with funds generated through activities like drug trafficking or terror financing.
  • The United States has very stringent laws to check money laundering.
  • In United Kingdom police have to prove predicate offence through circumstantial evidence, linking it to the funds generated and laundered.

  • U.K. agencies are not required to wait for the outcome of investigations into the predicate offence.

Need for nation

Certain restrictions on money laundering investigations on several occasions cause impediments in taking the cases to their logical conclusion. It will allow investigation agency without any dependence on registration of cases by other police agencies.

Source : The Hindu

GS III : Money-laundering and its prevention


Women force for Jammu and Kashmir


Young girls, teens have become the new face of protests in Kashmir, adding a new dimension to the violence and brutal retaliation government forces. The students were protesting against the assault of students of Government Degree College Pulwama by security forces and manhandling of students during Valley-wide protests. Student protests have become a new challenge for the administration in Kashmir where the law and order situation has gone downhill after the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen militant Burhan Wani last summer.

Women Force against protest

  • To counter women stone throwers, the Centre plans to raise an all women India Reserve Battalion (IRB) in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Centre has also given directions to the State government to not use Special Police Officers at the houses of politicians and other government officials and to use them in active policing instead.
  • The decisions were taken at a meeting to review various developmental and infrastructure projects in the State.
  • The cost of raising each battalion is around ₹61 crore, and 75% of the expenditure will be borne by the Centre.
  • IRB personnel are normally deployed in their respective States but they can be sent elsewhere if required.

Developmental package

  • ₹80,000 crore development package announced by Prime Minister in 2015, around ₹19,500 crore has already been released for various projects.
  • The package has been sanctioned for 63 projects concerning 15 central ministries.
  • Centre also asked the J&K government to build as many football fields and sports facilities as possible in rural Kashmir to engage the youth.
  • IRBs are being raised to provide jobs to the local youths with 60% of the vacancies to be filled with candidates from the border districts.

Source : The Hindu

GS III : Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism