Divorce law for Muslims

In the news

Centre informed a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court (SC) that it considered all forms of Muslim divorce unilateral, extrajudicial, unequal. Centre enact a new divorce law for Muslim men, if the SC struck down existing practices.

All three forms of triple talaq

  1. talaq-e-biddat,
  2. talaq hasan
  3. talaq ahasan

Personal Law vs Constitution

All personal laws are also laws governed by Article 13 of the Constitution, which makes it clear that no law can be valid if it violates Fundamental Rights. Violating Fundamental Rights of gender equality, gender justice, gender discrimination, human rights, and dignity under Articles 14, 15, 21 and 51A of the Constitution.

Global Practice

  • Pakistan : Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961 made triple talaq an illegal act.
  • Egypt : Through a 1929 law Egypt made the practice of divorce cumbersome.
  • Turkey : Banned the practice in 1926 and adopted a more progressive code of marriage.
  • Tunisia : Under 1956 law divorce is not valid out side a court of law.

Source : The Hindu

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


Government to curb online Child Sexual Abuse Material

Ministry of Women and Child Development to deal with the problem of online Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM). A stakeholder Consultation was held last year on this issue. It was decided that the Ministry will establish a National Alliance against   Online Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation.  It will mainly focusing on the online content.

Immediate Interim Measures

  • Consultations of the Inter-Ministerial Committee, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(MEITY) in collaboration with Ministry of Women and Child Development has issued immediate interim measures to curb the menace of Online Child Sexual Abuse Material.
  • The Internet Service Providers(ISPs) shall be required to adopt and implement the Internet Watch Foundation(IWF) Resources by 31st July 2017.
  • This foundation maintains a dynamic global list of websites and URLs which contain CSAM.
  • Implementation of IWF Resources will result in the relevant content being blocked/removed on an ongoing basis.
  • This is an interim measure till the IMC puts in place a centralized mechanism to monitor online CSAM.
  • ISPs will continue to observe due diligence requirements described under the IT Act for removing and disabling any content which is in violation.

Source : Pib

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

FSSAI to tax processed food items

Expert panel set up by food regulator FSSAI has recommended additional tax on highly processed food items and sugar-laced beverages. Panel also recommended ban on advertising of junk foods on children’s channels or during kids’ shows on TV.

About Report

  • 11-member panel on ‘Consumption of Fat, Sugar and Salt (FSS) and its health effects on Indian population’ suggests ways to cut consumption of unhealthy food products.
  • Imposing additional tax on the purchase of commodities can be a pragmatic approach to reduce their intake.
  • It aims to reduce rising burden of chronic diseases like cancer and diabetes.
  • The nutrition-related programmes of the government can be supported through profit from taxing unhealthy food products.
  • The report serve as a guideline document for all the stakeholders, including the industry, the FSSAI and consumers, in reducing consumption of fat, sugar and salt through processed food products.
  • Advertisement ban for foods high in Fat Sugar Salt (FSS) during children TV shows or kids TV channels is suggested by the panel.
  • Celebrity endorsements of such foods need to be discouraged and online social media websites should also comply with advertising ban for unhealthy foods.
  • Panel recommended reliable monitoring systems to examine FSS intake periodically at the national level.

Need for Regulation

The rising burden of mortality and morbidity due to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, respiratory diseases, diabetes and cancers is alarming. The burden of chronic diseases will tend to increase in the next 25 years. In order to tackle this simple sugars and refined carbohydrates should be reduced. These come largely from sugar sweetened beverages and processed snacks with high added sugar content.

Food Safety And Standards Authority of India

  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards , 2006.
  • FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
  • Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the Administrative Ministry for the implementation of FSSAI.
  • Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer of Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) appointed by Government of India.
  • Chairperson is in the rank of Secretary to Government of India.

Source : The Hindu

GS II : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

Farm suicides get attention of apex court

A study conducted across 13 States by the Union Agriculture Ministry throws up the all-too-familiar reasons that drive farmers to suicide.

About Study

The Ministry’s agricultural economic research unit, Agricultural and Rural Transformation Centre (ADRTC) of the Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bengaluru, investigated farmers’ suicides in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

Causes of suicide

The causes behind each death points to frequent crop failure, vagaries of the monsoon, absence of assured water resources, attacks of pests and diseases, debts, farming and social causes.

Other Data

Union Home Ministry’s National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which disseminates and compiles information on suicides of self-employed in farming/agriculture in its publication Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. NCRB reports up to 2015 reveal identical causes of suicides among farmers are bankruptcy, farming-related issues, family problems, illness, drug abuse or alcoholism.

Centre’s Stand

It can only formulate a line of action to resolve the issue, the actual implementation at the ground level is the responsibility of the individual States.

What need to be done?

  • Crop insurance, crop and enterprise diversification,
  • Government intervention through minimum support price (MSP) covering cost of production plus a reasonable profit margin,
  • Establishing farmers welfare cells as support groups.
  • Regulating informal credit market as remedies.
  • Co-ordination between the Centre and States ie States are to be consulted on these matters.
  • Disaster compensation, trade policies are to be in favour of our farming sector

Measures taken by governement

  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, which provides farmers’ full insurance and had 390.02 lakh farmers covered and 386.75 lakh hectares insured with a sum of ₹1,41,883.30 crore during Kharif 2016.
  • The Agriculture Ministry, 172.94 lakh farmers had been covered with a total sum of ₹69,851.37 lakh crore during Rabi 2016-17.
  • It said the government had increased the target of agricultural credit from ₹9 lakh crore to ₹10 lakh crore in Budget 2017-18.
  • Reserve Bank of India has allowed State and district level banks to take a lenient view on rescheduling of loans if crop loss is 33% or more.
  • Introduction of  the Kisan Credit Card scheme and the e-National Agricultural Market Scheme.

Source : The Hindu

GS III : Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices and farmers issue

Real Estate Act comes into force

The Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Act,2016 coming into effect, developers shall get all the ongoing projects that have not received Completion Certificate and the new projects registered with Regulatory Authorities within three months i.e by July end. This enables the buyers to enforce their rights and seek redressal of grievances after such registration.

Major provisions of the Act

  • Depositing 70% of the funds collected from buyers in a separate bank account in case of new projects and 70% of unused funds in case of ongoing projects.
  • Projects with plot size of minimum 500 sq.mt or 8 apartments shall be registered with Regulatory Authorities.
  • Both developers and buyers to pay the same penal interest of SBI’s Marginal Cost of Lending Rate plus 2% in case of delays.
  • Liability of developers for structural defects for five years.
  • Imprisonment of up to three years for developers and up to one year in case of agents and buyers for violation of orders of Appellate Tribunals and Regulatory Authorities.

Real Estate Regulatory Authorities

  • To take decisions on all issues preferably through consensus failing which through voting with Chairman using Casting Vote in case of a tie.
  • There shall be quorum for the meetings of the Regulatory Authorities and if a meeting is adjourned due to lack of such quorum, such meeting can take place without quorum.
  • Members of Regulatory Authorities shall declare interest if any in the matters coming up for discussion and shall not participate there in.

Need for an Act

Real estate projects in the range of 2,349 to 4,488 projects were launched every year amounting to a total of 17,526 projects with an investment of Rs.13.70 lakh cr in 27 cities including 15 State capitals. About ten lakh buyers invest every year with the dream of owning a house.

The Act ushers in the much desired accountability, transparency and efficiency in the sector with the Act defining the rights and obligations of both the buyers and developers.

Source : Pib

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

Aadhaar and mobile phones to make air travel

An attempt to minimise paperwork for air travel, the government is looking to roll out a digital system for airport entry and boarding flights using a flier’s Aadhaar number and mobile phone. The proposal came in the name DIGI YATRA

Proposed digi yatra

  • The civil aviation ministry is looking to make “boarding pass and security check-in” digital.
  • The ministry is working on the initiative to ensure the whole air travel experience is completely digital.
  • Under the initiative, there will be no need for any paper and the traveller will be securely identified through Aadhaar number, passport or other documents.
  • The government also decided to have a no-fly list in the wake of instances of unruly behaviour by air passengers.
  • If passengers behave in an unruly or disruptive manner and endanger the safety in an aeroplane, then he will not able to fly and are appropriately dealt with.

Source : Live Mint

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

Test and Treat Policy for HIV

Health Ministry launched the Test and Treat policy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients.

Key Facts

  • New policy, anyone who is tested and found positive will get the necessary treatment free of cost.
  • If anyone found positive will be provided with ART (Anti- Retroviral Therapy) irrespective of his CD count.
  • Scheme will be a centrally sponsored scheme and all men, women, adolescents and children who have been diagnosed positively can benefit under this new policy.
  • Also announced that India will soon develop a National Strategic Plan for HIV for next seven years and these seven years will be crucial for ending AIDS.
  • The 90:90:90 strategy that the Ministry has adopted will help to identify 90% of those infected, place 90% of these on treatment and ensure 90% have their virus under control.
  • This strategy will offer an opportunity to for ending AIDS by 2030 as a part of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG).
  • India have nearly 1600 ART and Link ART sites where treatment is provided across the country and recently we crossed the 1 million people on ART.
  • India is the second country in world to have such large numbers on free lifelong treatment.

Source : Pib

GS II : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

Child artistes can work only for 5 hours a day

Labour Ministry has proposed draft rules to fix the working conditions for child artistes and for employing children in family enterprises. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, which put a blanket ban on employment of children below 14 years of age.

Proposed Amendments

  • Child artiste will not be allowed to work for more than five hours a day for not more than three hours without rest
  • Also child assisting in a family business can only work for three hours a day.
  • The amendment to the Child Labour Rules, 1986 to become Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Rules, 2017.
  • Children will be allowed to assist their family in running family enterprises without affecting their school education.
  • The family would include parents, real siblings, and real brother and sister of the parents.
  • Such children will not be allowed to engage in any production, supply or retail chain which is remunerative for the family and hazardous activities.
  • At least 20% of the income earned by the child artiste will be required to be deposited in a fixed deposit account in a nationalised bank.
  • The money would be credited to the child after she turns 18.
  • The permission of the district magistrate would be mandatory for engaging a child artiste.
  • The production unit must nominate a person, who would be held responsible for the safety and security of the child artiste.
  • A child cannot take part in a street performance for monetary gain.

Aim of the Amendment

  • Security of the Children.
  • Education to be focused.

Source : The Hindu

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation


Legal Aid and Empowerment initiatives launched

Minister of Law & Justice and Electronics & IT, launched of three key legal aid and empowerment initiatives of the Department of Justice – including

  1. Pro bono legal services
  2. Tele law service
  3. Nyaya Mitra scheme.

Also mentioned that the country’s legal system would be digitally transformed, as digital inclusion holds the key to the country’s march towards Digital India.

Pro bono legal Services

  • The initiative is a web based platform, through which interested lawyers can register themselves to volunteer pro bono services for the underprivileged litigants, who are unable to afford it.
  • The Department of Justice has launched the online application for this initiative on its website doj.gov.in.
  • Through this online portal, litigants from marginalised communities (including members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, women, children, senior citizens, persons with low income and persons with disabilities) can also apply for legal aid and advice from the pro bono lawyers.
  • It is a step’ towards fulfilling the mandate of quality legal aid for all and help in fulfilling the constitutional mandate of legal aid for all.

Tele Law Service

  • Second initiative the Department of Justice and National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) are partnering with Common Service Centers (CSC)- E- Governance Service Limited for mainstreaming legal aid to the marginalized communities through the Common Service Centers (CSCs).
  • This initiative, called Tele Law is aimed at facilitating delivery of legal advice through an expert panel of lawyers stationed at the State Legal Services Authorities (SLSA).
  • The project would connect lawyers with clients through video conferencing facilities at CSCs operated by para legal volunteers.
  • For this purpose, this initiative would also play a pivotal role in empowering 1000 women para legal volunteers.
  • Using CSCs for mainstreaming legal aid services for the marginalized at the panchayat levels would ensure that legal aid reaches populations which remained untouched due to geographical challenges and/or lack of infrastructure.
  • The project would be launched across 1800 panchayats in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, North Eastern States and Jammu & Kashmir.

Nyaya Mitra scheme

  • It is a justice facilitation mechanism introduced to reduce case pendency at the district level.
  • Addressing the issue of more than 2.4 crore cases in the lower judiciary, the scheme will place a special focus on cases that are pending for over 10 years, which will be identified through the National Judicial Data Grid.
  • The program will create a Nyaya Mitra in each selected district who will be retired judicial (or executive) officer to provide legal assistance and connect litigants to CSCs, government agencies and civil society organisations.
  • The Nyaya Mitra will also responsible for referring marginalised applicants to Lok Adalats and assist in prison reforms within the region.
  • The initiative will be launched in 227 districts selected by the Department of Justice.

Source : Pib

GS II : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

C-DOT develops CCSP to make smart cities more efficient, economical and future proof

C-DOT develops CCSP (C-DOT Common Service Platform) to make smart cities more efficient, economical and future proof.

C-DOT Common Service Platform

  • Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) has developed CCSP(C-DOT Common Service Platform), the oneM2M  (Machine to Machine) standards compliant common service platform which can be deployed on any off-the-shelf generic server platforms or cloud infrastructure.
  • The business application providers can deploy their oneM2M compliant applications in either co-located infrastructure or on any public or private cloud.
  • Using the CCSP platform from C-DOT, the smart cities can reap all the benefits of using a standards compliant horizontal service layer and thus be more efficient, economical and future proof.
  • Along with the CCSP C-DOT has also developed various oneM2M indigenously designed hardware nodes like AND (Application Dedicated Node), ASN (Application Service Node) and MN(Middle node).
  • To effectively showcase the strength of the platform, C-DOT has also developed various applications like Smart Living, Smart Street Light, Carbon Footprint Monitoring Application and Power Monitoring which are fully oneM2M compliant.
  • C-DOT has also participated in two international interoperability events where the CCSP and the ADN were tested for interoperability with many other oneM2M compliant nodes from various international organisations like Interdigital, Herit, Huawei, HPE, NTT, KETI, LAAS-CNRS etc.


  • The Telecom Technology development centre of the Government of India. It was established in August 1984 as an autonomous body.
  • It was vested with full authority and total flexibility to develop state-of-the-art telecommunication technology to meet the needs of the Indian telecommunication network.
  • C-DOT has expanded to develop intelligent computer software applications.
  • The key objective was to build a centre for excellence in the area of telecom technology.

Cloud Infrastructure

  • Cloud infrastructure refers to a virtual infrastructure that is delivered or accessed via a network or the Internet.
  • This usually refers to the on-demand services or products being delivered through the model known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), a basic delivery model of cloud computing.
  • This is a highly automated offering where computing resources complemented with storage and networking services are provided to the user.

Source : Pib, C DOT

GS II : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation